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The Brain-Targeted Teaching Model for 21st-Century Schools
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The Brain-Targeted Teaching Model for 21st-Century Schools



February 2012 | 256 pages | Corwin
A powerful guide for applying brain research for more effective instruction

The Brain-Targeted Teaching Model for 21st Century Schools serves as a bridge between research and practice by providing a cohesive, proven, and usable model of effective instruction. Compatible with other professional development programs, this model shows how to apply relevant research from educational and cognitive neuroscience to classroom settings through a pedagogical framework. The model's six components are:

(1) Establish the emotional connection to learning

(2) Develop the physical learning environment

(3) Design the learning experience

(4) Teach for the mastery of content, skills, and concepts

(5) Teach for the extension and application of knowledge

(6) Evaluate learning

Mariale Hardiman presents this model with the educator in mind and offers practical steps for using it to inform instruction and teach 21st century skills. Her valuable road map will help you achieve improved outcomes for your students and better collaborative professional practices in your school.

 
List of Expert Teachers by Chapter
 
Foreword
 
Preface
 
Acknowledgments
 
About the Author
 
Introduction: The Emerging Field of Neuroeducation and 21st Century Schools
 
1. Information from the Neuro- and Cognitive Sciences that Educators Should Know—Separating Neuromyth from Neuroscience
 
2. Brain Structure and Function
Brain Facts

 
Brain Cells: Neurons and Glial Cells

 
Cerebral Organization

 
Hemispheric Difference

 
From Research to Practice

 
 
3. The Brain-Targeted Teaching Model for 21st Century Schools
Overview of the Brain-Targeted Teaching Model

 
Brain Target One: Establishing the Emotional Climate for Learning

 
Brain Target Two: Creating the Physical Learning Environment

 
Brain Target Three: Designing the Learning Experience

 
Brain Target Four: Teaching for Mastery of Content, Skills, and Concepts

 
Brain Target Five: Teaching for the Extension and Application of Knowledge—Creativity and Innovation in Education

 
Brain Target Six: Evaluating Learning

 
Brain-Targeted Teaching: Research to Practice

 
 
4. Brain-Target One: Establishing the Emotional Climate for Learning
Neural Systems Underlying Emotion

 
How We Perceive Fear and Threat

 
Effects of Stress on Learning

 
Stress and School Environments

 
The Impact of Positive Emotions

 
Emotions and the Adolescent

 
Implementing Brain Target One: Establishing the Emotional Climate for Learning

 
Strategies for Promoting a Positive Learning Environment

 
Emotional Connection to Learning Goals and Objectives

 
What Does a Brain-Targeted Teaching Unit Look Like in the Classroom?

 
 
5. Brain-Target Two: Creating the Physical Learning Environment
Attention and Novelty

 
Lighting in the Classroom

 
Sound in the Learning Environment

 
Scent in the Classroom

 
The Effects of Movement on Attention

 
Order and Beauty in the Classroom

 
What Does a Brain-Targeted Teaching Unit Look Like in the Classroom?

 
 
6. Brain-Target Three: Designing the Learning Experience
Cognitive Development and Big Picture Thinking

 
Cognitive Development and Big Picture Thinking

 
Instructional Decision-Making: Content Choices for Learning Goals and Objectives

 
Learning Activities

 
Evaluating Learning

 
Use of Graphic Organizers in the Brain-Targeted Teaching Model

 
What Does a Brain-Targeted Teaching Unit Look Like in the Classroom?

 
 
7. Brain Target Four: Teaching for Mastery of Content, Skills, and Concepts
Learning and Memory

 
Types of Memory Processes

 
Neurobiology of Learning and Memory

 
Arts Integration for Mastery of Content, Skills, and Concepts

 
Repeated Rehearsal

 
Elaboration

 
Generation

 
Enactment

 
Production

 
Effort After Meaning

 
Pictorial Representation

 
Emotion and Memory

 
Mnemonics

 
Desirable Difficulties

 
Chunking

 
Interleaving

 
Brain-Targeted Teaching Learning Units

 
What Does a Brain-Targeted Teaching Unit Look Like in the Classroom?

 
 
8. Brain Target Five: Teaching for the Extension and Application of Knowledge—Creativity and Innovation in Education
Twenty-First Century Skills

 
Creativity and Innovation in the Classroom

 
What Do the Brain Sciences Tell Us About Higher-Order Thinking and Creativity?

 
Content versus Process in the 21st Century Skills Movement

 
What Does This Mean for Teachers?

 
Brain Target Five Activities

 
Brain Target Five Summary

 
What Does a Brain-Targeted Teaching Unit Look Like in the Classroom?

 
 
9. Brain-Target Six: Evaluating Learning
Research to Practice: Evaluation to Enhance Learning

 
Frequent and Timely Feedback

 
Active Retrieval of Information

 
Spacing Effects

 
Multiple Kinds of Assessments

 
Portfolio Assessments

 
Student Journals

 
Performance Assessments

 
What Does a Brain-Targeted Teaching Unit Look Like in the Classroom?

 
 
10. Implementing Brain-Targeted Teaching in a School and Classroom
Brain-Targeted Teaching in the School: Getting Started

 
Instructional Leadership and Support

 
What Does a School Implementing Brain-Targeted Teaching Look Like?

 
Brain Target One: Emotional Climate for Learning

 
Brain Target Two: Physical Environment

 
Brain Target Three: Learning Design

 
Brain Target Four: Teaching for Mastery of Content, Skills, and Concepts

 
Brain Target Five: Teaching for the Extension and Application of Knowledge: Creativity and Innovation in Education

 
Brain Target Six: Evaluating Learning

 
Brain-Targeted Teaching in Teacher Preparation Programs: A Story from a Teacher Educator

 
 
APPENDIX I
Alignment of Brain-Targeted Teaching with Cognitive Taxonomies, Teaching Standards and Frameworks

 
Cognitive Taxonomies

 
Brain-Targeted Teaching Alignment

 
Teaching Standards and Teaching and Learning Frameworks

 
 
APPENDIX II
Brain-Targeted Teaching Implementation Checklist

 
 
Index

“Dr. Hardiman provides clear explanations of what is currently known about the functions of the human brain, along with practical examples of ways to apply these understandings in the classroom. With this book she offers a significant contribution to the field of education.”

Dee Dickinson, Founder
New Horizons for Learning, Seattle, WA

“Dr. Hardiman's Brain-Targeted Teaching Model is one of the most powerful and research-based methods of achieving greater learning retention—its focus on the arts and creative problem-solving moves teaching from traditional 'drill and kill' methods to one that engages students for the demands of 21st century teaching and learning.”

Linda Casto, Advisory Board
Johns Hopkins University Neuro-Education Initiative, Malibu, CA

“The Brain-Targeted teaching model has informed my teaching in so many ways. I love the model’s infusion of the arts as the arts lend themselves to creative expression for all children. There is no question that the Brain-Targeted Teaching Model enhanced the quality of my teaching."

Andrea Jackson, Fifth-Grade Teacher
Baltimore, MD

“The Brain Targeted Teaching model provides a framework for teaching that makes sense not only in K-12 but also in higher education settings. I hope to continue spreading the word that higher education coursework can be significantly enhanced by using the tenets of Brain-Targeted Teaching.”

Vicky M. Krug, Assistant Professor
Pittsburgh, PA

Brain Targeted Teaching provides teachers with the structure to plan thoughtful, intentional, arts-integrated units. The clear explanation of neuro and cognitive research allows teachers to develop a connection between the research and best practices. Our school is very excited about using this book as our means of instructional practice.”

Jenifer Shaud, Founder
Roots and Branches Charter School, Baltimore, MD

Book fits in with most parts of the course that I teach. I may use it for a second course that I am developing, which will starting fall 2013

Professor William Stone
EDLS, City College of New York
February 27, 2013
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