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Six Principles for Teaching English Language Learners in All Classrooms
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Six Principles for Teaching English Language Learners in All Classrooms



July 2008 | 168 pages | Corwin
Schools are not able to provide specialized classrooms for all English learners, especially when several languages besides English are spoken by ELLs. While the ELL population continues to grow, most teachers are monolingual and have little or no training on how to teach these students. This book uses a model that was designed around the five CREDE (Center for Research on Education, Diversity, and Excellence) standards for effective pedagogy: (1) joint productive activity; (2) language learning; (3) contextualization; (4) rigorous curriculum; and (5) instruction conversations. These five standards correspond to the authors' first five principles. The sixth principle --engaging families of english language learners --has also been found to have a positive impact on students' academic success. The book includes an array of powerful examples taken from a diverse range of K - 12 settings. The examples provide clear illustrations of teaching strategies that support the authors' principles. K - 12 teachers will discover that while these principles are particularly effective when applied to English Learners, they will ultimately be of benefit to all learners.
 
1. Introduction
English Language Learners of All Kinds

 
Language Learning: How Does It Happen?

 
BICS and CALP

 
All Teachers as Teachers of English Language Learners

 
A Look Back Is a Look Forward

 
Overview of the Book

 
Cast of Characters

 
A Note for Readers

 
 
2. Six Principles for Teaching English Language Learners: The Instructional Model
The CREDE Five Pedagogy Standards

 
The Model Enacted in Seventh Grade

 
Reflection on Cori's Teaching

 
Cori and the CREDE Standards

 
Joint Productive Activity

 
Contextualization

 
Language and Literacy

 
Rigorous Curriculum

 
Instructional Conversation

 
This Seems Overwhelming: Can I Do It?

 
Scaffolding the Five Standards

 
 
3. Joint Productive Activity (JPA) and English Language Learners
Reflection on Vickie's Lesson

 
Rationale/Definition of JPA

 
Is This JPA? Indicators of Joint Productive Activity

 
Classroom Culture

 
The Juggling Act: Grouping and Scheduling of JPA

 
Example of JPA in Study of Race and Racism

 
Reflection on Justin's Teaching

 
JPA in Middle School ESL: Learning From Our Mistakes

 
Reflection on Jayne's Teaching

 
Assessing JPA in Your Teaching

 
Teaching Tips for JPA

 
 
4. Contextualization and English Language Learners: Making Learning Meaningful
Reflection of Johanna's Teaching

 
Meaning of Contextualization

 
Are We Connecting? Indicators of Contextualization

 
Examples of Contextualization

 
Contextualization in Middle School Language Arts

 
Contextualization in Kindergarten

 
Contextualization in Fourth-Grade Science and Mathematics

 
Reflection on Examples

 
Assessing Contextualization of Lessons

 
Teaching Tips

 
 
5. Language and Literacy for ELLs
Rationale/definition of Developing Language and Literacy

 
Indicators of Language and Literacy Teaching

 
The Case for Home Language Development

 
Reading Instruction and ELLs

 
Georgia's Second Grade

 
Mary's Fourth Grade

 
Writing in Middle School

 
Writing Across the Curriculum

 
Tips for Language and Literacy Teachers

 
Assessing Your Language and Literacy Teaching

 
 
6. Engaging Students With Rigorous Curriculum: High Expectations for English Language Students
Meaning of Rigorous Curriculum

 
Indicators of Rigorous Curriculum

 
Examples of Rigorous Curriculum

 
Rigorous Curriculum Enacted in Kindergarten

 
Rigorous Curriculum Enacted in Middle Grades Language Arts

 
Reflection on Examples

 
Questions to Guide Planning

 
Teaching Tips

 
Assessing Your Rigorous Curriculum

 
 
7. Instructional Conversation (IC)
Rationale and Definition of IC

 
How Does IC Differ From Traditional Teaching?

 
Beyond Discussion: Indicators of Instructional Conversation

 
Assistance Through Good Questioning

 
Think-Pair-Share Strategy

 
Examples of IC

 
Instructional Conversation in Middle School

 
Instructional Conversation With Young Children

 
Tips for Instructional Conversation

 
Assessing Your IC

 
 
8. Engaging Families of English Language Learners
Importance of Involving Families

 
Successful Ways to Involve Families of English Language Learners

 
Communicating With Families

 
Involving Families in Classrooms

 
Increasing Help at Home

 
Engaging Families in Workshops and Other School Events

 
Visiting in Students' Homes

 
Challenges to Involving Families

 
Tips for Engaging Families

 
Assessing Your Family Involvement

 
 
9. Conclusion
Beyond a Model Approach

 
Compatible Views

 
Development of CREDE Standards

 
Preparation of Teachers and Teacher Educators

 
Concluding Remarks

 
 
References
 
Index

"A highly accessible and practical resource for applying sociocultural theory to both pedagogy and parent involvement. It begins with theory, but then provides excellent examples of how the principles might be meaningfully applied in real classrooms."

Robert Rueda, Professor
University of Southern California

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