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Differentiating Instruction
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Differentiating Instruction
Planning for Universal Design and Teaching for College and Career Readiness

Second Edition
Edited by:


December 2014 | 360 pages | Corwin

The ultimate guide to leaving no child behind—newly updated!

 

Now in its second edition, this best-selling book is your one-stop resource for differentiated instruction. Whether you’re new to the concept or just looking to improve your approach, you’ll find tools to meet the needs of all your students—in a way that works for you. You’ll discover how innovative approaches, such as Universal Design for Learning (UDL) and retrofitting, can help you adapt general education curriculum to fit diverse learning styles.

 

Featuring case studies at the elementary, middle, and high school levels, this new edition offers

 

  • More easy-to-use strategies to differentiate instruction in mixed ability classrooms
  • A new chapter on collaborative planning and evaluation, plus a discussion of co-teaching and differentiation
  • Updated lesson plans tied to the Common Core
  • A greater emphasis on cultural proficiency, ELLs, and gifted students
  • New technology references and resources
  • A strengthened link to RTI

 

Every student is different—and every classroom is different, too. With multiple options to differentiate instruction at any point along the way, this essential guide will help you create the path to success for every student.


"Thousand, Villa, and Nevin take three very big ideas in education
Universal Design, Collaboration, and Differentiated Instructionand combine them in a novel and engaging way. And they practice what they preach – the information and examples speak to someone just beginning to differentiate instruction as well as the expert who wants to further refine his or her craft."

—Douglas Fisher, Professor

San Diego State University

 

"The extensive emphasis on technology, case studies, and lesson plans throughout the book provide a rich resource to the readers of this exciting text. Administrators, university instructors, and staff developers will find this a valuable tool to support their students and colleagues on their differentiation journey.”

—Mary Falvey, Retired Dean and Professor Emeritus

California State University, Los Angeles

 

 
A Letter to Our Readers
 
Acknowledgments
 
About the Authors
 
1. Why Differentiation of Instruction Now?
What Differentiated Instruction IS (and What It Is NOT)

 
Rationales for Differentiated Instruction

 
Rationale #1: To Meet Needs of Diverse Learners

 
Rationale #2: To Meet Legal Mandates

 
Rationale #3: To Be Ethical in Implementing Democratic Values

 
Rationale #4: To Dispel Myths About Students

 
Rationale #5: To Be Effective Teachers

 
Retrofit and Universal Design: Two Approaches to Differentiated Instruction

 
Systemic Support for Differentiated Instruction

 
Overview of the Book

 
 
2. Accessing the General Education Curriculum Through a Retrofit Framework
What Is the Retrofit Approach?

 
Scenario #1: Elementary Science and Social Studies

 
Scenario #2: Middle Level Mathematics

 
Scenario #3: Middle Level Science

 
Scenario #4: High School Language Arts

 
What Do You Know About Retrofitting as a Way to Differentiate Instruction?

 
 
3. Access to Curriculum Through Universal Design for Learning
The UDL Cycle for Differentiating Content, Product, and Process

 
Design Point #1: Gathering Facts About the Learners

 
Design Point #2: Differentiate Content and Materials

 
Design Point #3: Product or Differentiate How Students Show What They Know

 
Design Point #4: Differentiate Instructional Processes

 
Pause and Reflect About Student-Specific Teaching Strategies and Supports

 
Putting It All Together With the Universal Design Lesson Plan

 
 
4. Gathering Facts About the Learners
Record Review

 
Family-Centered and Culturally Responsive Fact Gathering

 
Interest Inventories

 
Learning Preferences Information

 
Learning and Thinking Styles

 
Multiple Intelligences

 
Data-Based Observations Including Functional Behavioral Assessments and Cooperative Group Monitoring

 
Data-Based Observations

 
Functional Behavioral Assessment

 
Monitoring Cooperative Group Learning

 
Curriculum-Based Assessments

 
Making Action Plans (MAPs)

 
Disability-Specific Information

 
Co-Teacher Roles in Gathering Facts About the Learners

 
Pause and Reflect

 
 
5. Differentiating Access to the Content of Learning
What Is Content?

 
Ways to Promote Access to Content

 
Taxonomies and Objectives: Using and Not Abusing Them

 
Layered Curriculum and Levels of Participation

 
Differentiating Content Using Graphic Organizers and Educational Technology

 
Differentiating Content With Culturally and Linguistically Responsive Techniques

 
Involving Students in Determining Content

 
Co-Teacher Roles in Differentiating Content

 
Pause and Reflect

 
 
6. Differentiating and Assessing the Products of Learning
Why Differentiate Assessment in a Climate of High-Stakes Testing?

 
Using Culturally Responsive Techniques to Differentiate and Assess the Products of Learning

 
Taxonomy and Learning Preferences Frameworks to Differentiate Products and Assessment

 
Using Bloom’s Taxonomy to Differentiate Products and Assessment

 
Using Learning Preferences Frameworks to Differentiate Products and Assessment

 
Using Bloom’s Taxonomy and Multiple Intelligences Theory to Differentiate Products and Assessment

 
Scaffolding and Curriculum-Based Assessments

 
Scaffolding as Formative Assessment

 
Curriculum-Based Assessment

 
Differentiating How Teachers Grade Products

 
Alternatives to Norm-Referenced Grading Procedures

 
Adapting Criterion-Referenced Grading Systems

 
Self-Referenced Systems

 
Co-Teacher Roles in Differentiating Products of Learning

 
Pause and Reflect

 
 
7. Differentiating the Instructional Processes
The Complexities of the Process of Instruction (Graphic Organizer)

 
Instructional Formats

 
Instructional Arrangements

 
Highlights on Cooperative Learning

 
A Focus on Cooperative Strategies for Emerging and Struggling Readers

 
A Highlight on Peer Tutors and Partner Learning Arrangements

 
Instructional Strategies

 
Using Taxonomies

 
Applying Concepts From Learning Preferences Frameworks

 
Integrating the Arts

 
Social and Physical Environment

 
Co-Teaching Approaches

 
Pause and Reflect

 
 
8. Collaborative Planning and Evaluation for Differentiated Instruction
The Rationale and Benefits of Collaborative Planning and Teaching

 
Effective and Efficient Use of Planning and Evaluation Time

 
Development of Relationships Among Team Members: It’s a Process!

 
Skills for Building Trust and Establishing Team Norms

 
Communication and Leadership Skills

 
Creative Problem-Solving Skills

 
Conflict Resolution Skills

 
Are We Really an Effective Planning Team?

 
 
9. Co-Teaching to Deliver Differentiated Instruction
Why Collaborate to Co-Teach?

 
Research Base for Co-Teaching

 
Who Can Be Co-Teachers?

 
Four Approaches to Co-Teaching

 
Supportive Co-Teaching

 
Parallel Co-Teaching

 
Complementary Co-Teaching

 
Team Co-Teaching

 
Questions About Co-Teaching to Differentiate Instruction

 
 
10. UDL Lesson Planning Cycle to Differentiate Instruction in Action: A Fourth-Grade Social Studies Unit
Setting the Context

 
Co-Teacher Professional Development Activities

 
Multiple Methods for Accessing Content

 
Differentiating the Products (Outcomes) of Learning

 
Differentiating the Instructional Processes

 
Instructional Format

 
Instructional Arrangements

 
Instructional Strategies

 
Social and Physical Environment

 
Co-Teaching Approaches

 
Implementing the UDL Plan

 
Using the Lesson Plan Template

 
 
11. UDL Lesson Planning Cycle to Differentiate Instruction in Action: Middle Level Mathematics
Who Are the Teachers?

 
Professional Development Activities

 
Gathering (New) Facts About the Learners

 
Multiple Methods for Accessing the Content for Algebra I

 
Differentiating the Products (Outcomes) of Learning

 
Differentiating the Instructional Processes

 
Group Investigation

 
Cognitively Guided Instruction

 
English Language Learner Techniques

 
Implementing the UDL Plan

 
Using the Universal Design Lesson Plan Template

 
 
12. UDL Lesson Planning Cycle to Differentiate Instruction in Action: Middle Level Science
Who Are the Teachers?

 
Planning to Change From a Retrofit Approach to a Universal Design Approach

 
Gathering (Additional) Facts About the Learners

 
Pause and Reflect: Tina

 
Planning Prior to the Lesson

 
Planning to Differentiate Content and Materials

 
Planning to Differentiate Products

 
Planning to Differentiate the Process of Learning

 
Finalizing the Lesson Plan

 
Differentiation in Action in the Class

 
Reflection

 
 
13. UDL Lesson Planning Cycle to Differentiate Instruction in Action: High School Language Arts
Who Are the Teachers?

 
Co-Teacher Professional Development Activities

 
Gathering Facts About the Learners

 
Differentiating the Content and Materials

 
Key Ideas and Details

 
Craft and Structure

 
Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity

 
Differentiating the Product

 
Pause and Reflect

 
Differentiating the Process

 
Co-Teacher Roles

 
The Planned Lesson

 
Before the Lesson

 
The Planned Instructional Sequence

 
Pause and Reflect

 
 
14. UDL Lesson Planning Cycle to Differentiate Instruction in Action: High School Mathematics
Who Are the Teachers?

 
Co-Teacher Collaborative Planning and Professional Development Activities

 
Gathering Facts About the Learners

 
Anticipating Learners’ Interests, Learning Preferences, Skills, and Conceptual Understanding

 
Multiple Methods for Accessing the Content of Algebra II

 
Unit Theme: Reasoning and Sensemaking

 
Standards Addressed in the Unit

 
Differentiating the Product: Multiple Methods to Demonstrate Unit Objectives

 
Implementation

 
Assessment of Prior Knowledge/Mastery

 
Differentiating the Process of Instruction

 
Planning for Differentiation to Include Evidence-Based Strategies

 
Implementing Differentiated Instructional Processes

 
Using the Lesson Plan Template

 
Reflections

 
Reflections on Facts About the Learners

 
Reflections on Content and Materials Differentiation

 
Reflections on Product and Assessment Differentiation

 
Reflections on Instructional Process Differentiation

 
Peer Observer Feedback and Future Goals

 
 
15. Epilogue: Pause and Reflect
Values and Assumptions About Students

 
Values and Assumptions About Adults

 
Why Explain Values and Assumptions?

 
 
References
 
Resources
 
Index

"Thousand, Villa, and Nevin take three very big ideas in education - Universal Design, Collaboration, and Differentiated Instruction - and combine them in a novel and engaging way.  And they practice what they preach  the information and examples speak to someone just beginning to differentiate instruction as well as the expert who wants to further refine his or her craft."

Douglas Fisher, Professor
San Diego State University, San Diego, CA

"The extensive emphasis on technology throughout the book and in the case studies and lesson plans provides a rich resource to the readers of this exciting text. Administrators, university instructors, and staff developers will find this a valuable tool to support their students and colleagues on their differentiation journey. "

Mary Falvey, Ph.D., Retired Dean and Prof. Emeritus
Charter College of Education, California State University, Los Angeles

"This book provides a whole range of practical tools for meeting wide-ranging student needs.  Can’t start from scratch because of district mandates and pre-purchased curricula?  Fine—here’s how to retrofit to accommodate student needs.  Want to develop an instructional plan based on UDL principles?  Fine—here it is, from soup to nuts.  Teachers, university students, and administrators will find practical solutions to instruction firmly embedded in evidence-based theory, to meet all of their needs."

 

Jean Ann Summers, Ph.D., Associate Director/Research Professor
Beach Center on Disability, Life Span Institute, University of Kansas

It is a great book with excellent practical information for practicing and pre-service teachers. I would like to see a video that goes along with it like the previous version otherwise I will have to consider adopting a new book for the next time I teach.

Professor Jennifer L Craft
Education, Johns Hopkins University
January 14, 2016

current - aligned with common core - well written - valuable resources for students

Professor Jennifer Craft
Education, Johns Hopkins University
June 1, 2015

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